the Paperwhite needs to be turned on and the pincode/password input if you have one before you plug it in. The Kindle screen should either go blank or have a usb connected message. Some cables do not support data transfer, but they will charge. Also, have you tried rebooting both the computers and your Paperwhite (hold power on for a full 30 seconds (ignore any messages) and then let it come back up. it usually takes my computer a minute or two to recognize the kindle and I have a Windows 10 lap top and the latest Paperwhite.
In addition to CBRetriever's spot-on advice, try restarting your computer with the Kindle still connected. Try this step with a few different ports if you have them available. Also make sure that your profile on the computer has administrator rights.